Nature - Science Journal am 16.03.2021 23:00:00
Primate cell fusion disentangles gene regulatory divergence in neurodevelopment
... Among primates, humans display a unique trajectory of development that is responsible for the many traits specific to our species. However, the inaccessibility of primary human and chimpanzee tissues has limited our ability to study human evolution. Comparative in vitro approaches using primate-derived induced pluripotent stem cells have begun to reveal species differences on the cellular and molecular levels1,2. In particular, brain organoids have emerged as a promising platform to study primate neural development in vitro3–5, although cross-species comparisons of organoids are complicated by differences in developmental timing and variability of differentiation6,7. Here we develop a new platform to address these limitations by fusing human and chimpanzee induced pluripotent stem cells to generate a panel of tetraploid hybrid stem cells. We applied this approach to study species divergence in cerebral cortical development by differentiating these cells into neural organoids. We found that hybrid organoids provide a controlled system for disentangling cis- and trans-acting gene-expression divergence across cell types and developmental stages, revealing a signature of selection on astrocyte-related genes. In addition, we identified an upregulation of the human somatostatin receptor 2 gene (SSTR2), which regulates neuronal calcium signalling and is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders8,9. We reveal a human-specific response to modulation of SSTR2 function in cortical neurons, underscoring the potential of this platform for elucidating the molecular basis of human evolution. Cortical organoids derived from tetraploid human–chimpanzee fused induced pluripotent stem cells provide a platform for untangling unique molecular features of human brain development. ...
Neuropharmacology, Characterization, Transcriptional, Lorente-Galdos, Bioinformatics
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Link zum Artikel bei Nature - Science Journal: Primate cell fusion disentangles gene regulatory divergence in neurodevelopment